Jan. 31, 439

“Law Regarding Jews, Samaritans, Heretics, and Pagans” issued by Emperors Theodosius and Valentinian Augustuses to the Praetorian Prefect Florentius [Roman Empire; Present-day Italy]: “[…] 2) We finally sanction by this law destined to live in all ages, that no Jew, no Samaritan, who does not rely on either law shall enter upon any honors or dignities; to none of them shall the administration of a civil duty be available, nor shall the they perform even the duties of a defender (of a municipality). 3) With an equal reasonable consideration also, We prohibit any synagogue to arise as a new building, but license is granted to strengthen the ancient synagogues which threaten immediately to fall in ruin. 4) If any person […] has erected a synagogue, he shall know that he has labored for the profit of the Catholic Church.  […] If any one of them should begin the building of a synagogue, not with the desire merely to repair it, in addition to the loss of fifty pounds of gold, he shall be deprived of his audacious undertaking. Besides, he shall perceive that his goods are proscribed and that he himself shall immediately be destined to the death penalty, if he should overthrow the faith of another (convert them) by his perverted doctrine. 7) […] members of the aforesaid sects shall execute the sentences of judges only in private suits, and they shall not be in charge of the custody of prisons […]. 10) […] You shall also direct that these commands shall be announced to the governors of the provinces, so that by their like solicitude they may make known to all municipalities and provinces what We have necessarily sanctioned.” [Researcher’s note: Even though the title of the law reads “Jews, Samaritans, Heretics, and Pagans,” it was specifically geared towards Jews.]
Pharr, Clyde: The Theodosian Code and Novels, and the Sirmondian Constitutes – A Translation with Commentary, Glossary, and Bibliography. (New Jersey; 2001); Researched by Ziba Shadjaani 2/8/2018