ca. 632

Decree issued by Heraclius [Present-day Italy] [Unconfirmed]

Commentary from other sources:
1) “In A.D. 632, [Byzantine Emperor] Heraclius decreed that all Jews be baptized. The astounding attempt to unify the empire by forced conversions brought the usual reverse results: When the armies of Islam advanced on the Christian East a few years later, Jews, baptized or not, received them as welcome avengers.”
Flannery, Edward H.: “The Anguish of the Jews.” p. 68

2) “The outcome was fingerpointing, recriminations, and purges of alleged collaborators with the Persians, especially Jews. Heraclius may have arrived at that decision while at Jerusalem in 630. Although an extremely harsh and unrealistic and ineffective measure, it was consistent with Heraclius’ other strenuous efforts to achieve religious uniformity among the subjects within his empire. But other factors may have been present.”
Kaegi, Walter Emil: Heraclius: Emperor of Byzantium.” p. 216