ca. 1500 C.E.

[Possible/Probable] Toll/Custom (Zollordnung) Tariff of Fernstein near Tyrol, year 1500 [Archduchy of Austria/House of Habsburg; Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “If a Jew comes/walks (‘fürget’)* or rides [across] and does not announce himself**, he forfeits his body and possessions, if he however announces himself, he is to pay as much as a swine/pig*** which is four (‘fierer’ [=1/5 Austro-Hungarian Krone]) and dice.” [Researcher’s note: *This word, which no longer exists in German, seems to have referred to the act of passing through on foot. **Meaning someone who sneaks through without paying the toll. ***It’s noteworthy that Jews are equated in this text to swine/pigs. The origins of giving dice when crossing a toll crossing is obscure.]
Rauscher, Peter: Den Christen gleich sein. Diskriminierung und Verdienstmöglichkeiten von Juden an österreichischen Mautstellen in der Frühen Neuzeit (16./17. Jahrhundert); (“Egal to Christians. Discrimination and Earning-Potential/Opportunity of Jews in Austrian Toll-Crossings”); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 10/4/2018