ca. 1540 C.E.

“Order” issued by the Council of Constance, year 1540 [Prince-Bishopric of Constance; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “Henceforth, no Jew may enter the city and its jurisdiction without having given a sufficient commitment (‘genugsame Verschreibung’) that he’s neither going to lend, purchase, exchange or in any other fashion trade in Constance or with the citizens, residents, or relatives in the city of Constance where someone remains in debt to them. If a Jew violates this […] he shall be physically punished and fined according to the findings and preferences (‘Erkenntnis’) of the Council. […]” [Researcher’s note: Jews were permitted to buy, sell, or exchange using cash – so long as no debt remained (to be paid off at a later date) at the end of the deal.]
Badenia oder das badische Land und Volk. Eine Zeitschrift zur Verbreitung der historische-topographisch-statistischen Kenntiniß des Großherzogthums. Herausgegeben von Dr. Joseph Bader, Großherzgl. Archivrath. Zweiter Band. (“Badenia or the Land and Peoples of Baden. A Periodical for the Dissemination of the historical-topographical-statistical knowledge of the Grand Duchy. Edited by Joseph Bader, PhD, Council-Archivist of the Grand-duchy. Second Volume.”); (Heidelberg; 1862);  Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 10/2/2018