Feb. 20, 1691

“Order of the Soveign Prince” issued by Prince-Bishop Johann Gottfried II von Gutenberg [Present-day Germany; Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg]: “The noble and collegiat-Stifts*(‘Collegiat-Stiffter’), cloisters, universities, hospitals, and such mediat-advocatus-lordships (‘mediate Vogtey-Herrschaften’) are not to admit Jews into their villages, courts, [and] hamlets […] and to collect their protection fee [for the sovereign-prince…] Also, Jews are to receive their protection and protection-letters solely from the highest princely authority […] otherwise, no Jew is to be tolerated or allowed to pass [through] the domains and the Hoch-Stift.**” [Researcher’s note: *A Stift was an independent territory within the Holy Roman Empire. **A Hochstift was a territory that was ruled by a prince/bishop. A similar order was issued on April 18, 1688.]
Wirzburgische Chronik derer lezteren Zeiten von P. Ignacio Gropp. (Wirzburg; 1750); (Chronicle of Würzburg’s past by P. Ignacio Gropp.); (Würzburg; 1750); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 4/21/2020