May 16, 1781

“Ordinance” issued by the Austrian Government [Present-day Austria]: “[…] Jew must maintain their business and trade books in a language that is customary* in the nation (‘langesüblich’) or otherwise see them nullified. […]” [Researcher’s note: *This basically meant that Jews were prohibited from maintaining their trades-books in Hebrew. A mandate issued in 1782 permitted business-owners to maintain their books in German as well as the local language – even French. A Royal Court decree issued on 1816 permitted the keeping of business books in English if found appropriate.]
Beyträge zur Politischen Gesetzeskunde im österreichischen Kaiserstaate. Herausgegeben von Johann Ludwig Ehrenreich (Graf von Barth-Barthenheim); Erster Band. (Wien; 1821) (Contributions to the Political Jurisprudence in the Austrian Imperial State. Volume I; Edited/Published by Johann Ludwig Ehrenreich (Count of Barth-Barthenheim)); (Vienna; 1821); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 12/17/2017