Mar. 17, 1808

“Infamous Decree” issued by Napolean [France]: “Napoleon, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and protector of the Confederation of the Rhine We have decreed the following: […] Titel II, 7. From now on […] no Jew shall engage in any trade, commerce, or deals without having received a certificate from the Prefect of the Department for that purpose; and only if the Municipal Council finds that said Jew did not engage in usury or illicit commerce;[…] 10. Any act of commerce done by an unlicensed Jew shall be null and void. Title III, 16. No Jew, currently domiciled in our départements of Haut and Bas Rhin, will henceforth be allowed to take up residence there.”

The Infamous Decret of 17 March 1808 (le-decret-infame-du-17-mars-1808),; Accessed online; Researched and Translated by Franziska Wagener 1/25/2017