Jul. 8, 1234

“Deferent signum rotae” (“Wearing of a Round Badge”) issued by the Council of Arles [Present-day France]: “[…] In order that the Jews can be distinguished from the others, we have decreed … that they are to wear a circular sign on their bosom … the width of the circle may be a finger long, and the height of it shall be half of a span of a palm […] Likewise, we declare, that all Jewish males, who are older than 13 years old will [need to] wear a sign when outside of the house […] the width of which is to be three or four fingers wide on the upper left side of their garment, unless they are traveling.  All Jewish women who are older then 12 are to wear a yellow sign when leaving of the house. […]”
Hahn, Christoph Ulrich: Geschichte der Ketzer im Mittelalter, besonders in 11. 12. und 13. Jahrhundert, nach den Quellen bearbeitet (History of the Heretics in the Middle Ages, especially in the 11th, 12th, and 13th Century, edited according to the Sources); Volume 3, (Stuttgard 1850), Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 12/26/2016