Mar. 4, 1277

“Ordinance” of King Rudolf I [of Habsburg] [Present-day Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Slovenia, Switzerland]: “[…] all Jews are to be [regarded as] Our ‘chamber-servants’ [‘Kammerknechte’] […] and under the immediate reign of the empire.” [Researcher’s note: This ordinance ensured that Jews could be taxed and/or levied according to the king’s whim, and that all revenues would flow into the royal treasury. It did not in any way, however, protect Jews from arbitrary treatments as ownership of them were pledged or pawned off regularly.]
Prince Lichnowsky: Geschichte König Rudolfs des Ersten und seiner Ahnen; (Wien, 1836); (History of King Rudolf the First and his Heirs); (Vienna; 1836); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 6/5/2017