May 22, 1317

“Order of Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV (“Ludwig der Bayer”) [Present-day Germany]: “King Louis transfers the bailiwick of the empire’s abbey of Werden and the bailiwick/jurisdiction of the Jews of Dortmund […] to Count Dietrich [VII] of Kleve. […]” [Researcher’s note: Since most rulers in the Middle Ages considered Jews to be part of their personal possessions, Jews were often sold and pawned off at will and for monetary gain.]
Duisburg, LA, Kleve-Mark, Urkunden, Nr. 146, Orig., lat., Perg. (“Duisburg, Provincial Archive, Kleve-Mark, Official Documents, Nr. 146, Orig[inal], Latin, [on] Parchment Paper”); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani, 9/17/2017