ca. 1331 C.E.

“Diocesan Synod of Breslau/Wroclaw” (‘Constitutions’) of Bishop Nanker of Breslau/Wroclaw [Prince Bishopric of Breslau/Wroclaw; Present-day Poland] [Provisional]“[…] Also, the wretched Jews, who have been subjected to permanent bondage (servitude) by their own guilt, (continue) to refuse to distinguish themselves in their clothing from that of the Christians, because they wear hoods such as the clerics do [and] there is not distinction between Jews and Christians. It is indeed unacceptable, and of course, absurd that a blasphemer of Christ does not distinguish himself from a Christian. In order, therefore, to dampen this damnable blending (in) which is sometimes committed by them, which they believe to have an excuse for by obscuring the error, we strictly order in consent with our brothers that the rectors of the churches in the cities and places of our diocese in which Jews are present, are to hold and dispose of these Jews effectively and emphatically, and to abolish the hood (capucia/Kaputze) completely and to no longer permit their usage anymore. […] from now on, Jews are denied the fellowship of Christians under the punishment of excommunication to which all the offenders shall be subject to.   […] Jews with hoods [capuciatis/Kaputze] are strictly prohibited from participating in the markets.” [Researcher’s note: The “Constitutions” of the Bishop Nanker of Breslau/Wroclaw from the year 1331 contains two conditions regarding the Jews, the first of which is only partially decipherable due of a tear in the parchment paper and possibly refers to the building of a synagogue (quasi synagoga iudeorum nostra = Jews have a synagogue). Far more detailed is the second part of the text (de iudeis = of Jews) which is translated above.]
Medieval Ashkenaz: Corpus der Quellen zur Geschichte der Juden im Spätmittlealterlichen Reich; Synoden und Konzilien 1, Nr. 12a (Corpus of the Sources on the History of Jews in the Late Middles Ages; Synods and Councils 1, No. 12a). Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 2/19/2017