Jan. 25, 1426

“Mandate” issued by Pope Martin to Bishop von Gerace [Papal States; Present-day Vatican City, Italy, France]: “[… give you (‘Bishop von Gerace’) the authority to legally proceed] against all Jews who engage [publicly] in usury, […] do not wear a Jewish sign […] and disobey the orders of the church in any [other] way […]” [Researcher’s note: Bishop von Gerace was Pope Martin’s commissioner to whom he gave full authority with this mandate to prosecute Jews who were believed to be in violation of church law. It is noteworthy that – even with these mandates issued – Pope Martin was thought of as a ‘friend of the Jews’ up until the 18th century.]
Vogelstein, Hermann and Paul Rieger: Geschichte Der Juden in Rom. Zweiter Band; 1420-1870 (History of the Jews in Rome. Volume II. 1420-1870); (Berlin; 1895); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 6/1/2018