Oct. 6, 1537

“Mandate” issued by Prince-Bishop Conrad [Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg; Present-day Germany]: “[…] Jews who pursue the prohibited practice of usury are to be expelled immediately from the domain/land. […] if any of the subjects borrowed money from Jews – either on guarantees or on pledges – and in case they were found to be engaged in such a trade, all officers and subordinates are to see to it emphatically, that the Jews receive (be paid back) only the principle amount (capital) and nothing more than that. […]”
Die Juden in Franken. Ein unpartheiischer Beitrag zur Sitten- und Rechtsgeschichte Frankens von Dr. Ludwig Heffner, praktischer Arzt zu Würzburg, Konservater des historischen Vereins daselbst. Mit 29 Urkunden-Beilagen  (Nürnberg; 1855); (Jews in Frankonia. An Non-Partisan Contribution Regarding the Moral and Legal History of Franconia by Dr. med. Ludwig Heffner, practical physician to Würzburg, Conservator of the Historical Association there (of the same city). With 29 [Official] Documents Attached.); (Nuremberg; 1855); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 3/22/2018