ca. 1539 C.E.

“Jewish Ordinance” issued by Landgrave Philipp of Hesse, year 1539 [Present-day Germany; Landgraviate of Hesse] [Provisional]: “[…] 1) […] Jews are not to attack/insult the Christian belief in any way and are to live according to the Torah and not the teaching of the Talmud. 2) [… Jews] are not to build new synagogues. 3) [… they are] not to discuss/debate religion with Christians […] 4 […] 5) They may only do business in places (cities/towns etc.) where there are no guilds present or [where] there are no objections from the guilds […] 6) They are to be honest and sincere in their dealings and trades. 7) […] not charge/take more than 5% in interest […] and to make loans only in the presence of an officer or in cases of married people, only with the prior knowledge of the partner […] 8) […] may not bribe officers of the landgraviate. 9) […] sexual contact to Christians […] and loans on stolen goods is to be punished with death. 11) Foreign Jews are prohibited to do business within the landgraviate of Hesse. […] 12) Officers of the landgraviate are to strictly watch over and enforce the Jewish ordinance. […] 14) Each Jew is to pay a ‘protection fee’ […] in accordance with his wealth. […]”
Hecker, Horst: Jüdisches Leben in Frankenberg (“Jewish Life in Frankenberg by Horst Hecker”), 2011; Accessed online; Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 9/6/2018