Aug. 1, 1551

“Yellow Stain” (Gelber Fleck) issued by Ferdinand I [Holy Roman Empire; Present-day Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Croatia]: “We, Ferdinand of God’s grace […] have ruled that from now on all Jews are to wear a Jewish sign […] made out of yellow fabric […] on the left side of their chest or skirts or dresses […] openly and undisguised […].  Those who violate this law after this month is over are to be taken to court by the authorities for the first two times. Those found to be violating this order for a third time, are to be expelled along with their wives and children from Our Austrian Princedom.  […] Jews who are passing through are not to be punished for not wearing such signs. However, they are to start wearing them, as soon as they reach their destinations. […] And so, I command that all Jews who step into Our Princedom and country without a before mentioned sign are to be severely punished  […] and that Our ruling is upheld. […]”
Braumüller, Wilhelm: Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Juden in Wien. Erste Abteilung. Allgemeiner Teil 1526-1847. Erster Band. (Wien) 1918. p. 10 ff., Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 2/20/2016