Jun. 28, 1591

Expulsion of Jews from Braunschweig [Germany]: “So due to the particular event, we have many types of Christian and highly motivating reasons, and have decided with good, mature advice, to urgently request that henceforth in our loyal region no Jews, whether they have presented letters of protection or not, are not to be tolerated, protected or sheltered in our principalities and lands after Michaelmas of this current ninety-first year. And keeping with this, we, without exception, clearly terminate and retract our protection and shelter herewith at the above mentioned time. And we earnestly order all [Jews] now remaining or otherwise residing in our principalities and lands to move away. That he or she not let themselves be seen in our principality, counties or lands, in no place, be it where it may, after the specified departure time of Michaelmas. Rather, that they [the Jews] leave and abstain from our land entirely and not move about and through this land. But, if they [Jews] are found in our lands and territories, they may be attacked. … “
Proclamation signed by Duke Heinrich Julius, Bishop of Halberstadt,
revoking all rights of residence for Jews in Braunschweig; Wolfenbuettel, June 28, 1591; Translation received from the Leo Baeck Institute Archive, New York, 6/10/2015