Jul. 30, 1592

“Jewish Ordinance” of Kur-Cologne issued by (Kur) Prince-Elector Archbishop Ernest (‘Ernst’) of Cologne* [Present-day Germany; Archbishopric of Cologne]: “By the grace of God, elected and confirmed Archbishop of Cologne (‘Cölln’) of the Holy Roman Empire […] we announce [and let you know] herewith […] that no Jew or Jewess is to settle or be found/seen in our archbishopric without our seal [or those of the lower-lords in the archbishopric (‘unnderherligkheiitt der unnderherrn’)… ] and have agreed to pay the annual tributes. In order that the Jews and Jewesses are not attacked or harmed within our domain by anyone, they shall wear a public sign attached to the front of their clothing, in the form of a clearly visible yellow so that they are also recognizable and distinguishable from the Christians […].” [Researcher’s note: This ordinance also requires that the homes of Jews and Christians be kept separate; that Jews may make loans, except on houses, farms, vineyards, fields, grass-land, land, bushes, pensions etc. and prohibits the purchase any of these; it also prohibits Jews from taking wine or fruits as payment from Christians etc.]
Flöcken, Norbert: Von der Ausgrenzung our Integration: Judenordnungen im Rheinland;  (“From exclusion/marginalization to integration: Jewish Ordinance in the Rhineland”) (2017), Accessed online; Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 9/11/2018