Nov. 7, 1613

“Decree” issued by the Sanctum Officium* [Papal States; Present-day Italy]: “[…] Jewish traders are forbidden to trade with Christian artifacts or [they] are to face a fine of 200 Scudi and punishment [to work] on galleys** […] The Christian buyer is to be fined the equal amount [of money] […].” [Researcher’s note: *The “Sanctum Officium” (‘Holy Office’) is one of the highest offices of the Catholic church and responsible for defending the Catholic doctrine. **It was not uncommon to sentence people to hard labor, because no one wanted to be responsible for the ‘upkeep’ of prisoners who were behind bars, so all able-bodied convicts were usually put to work – for instance  on galleys as rowers or as stone lifters during big construction projects. This decree was reissued on May 28, 1614.]
Vogelstein, Hermann and Paul Rieger: Geschichte Der Juden in Rom. Zweiter Band; 1420-1870 (History of the Jews in Rome. Volume II. 1420-1870); (Berlin; 1895); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 5/22/2018