Aug. 14, 1714

“Ordinance” issued by the Government of Prince-Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg [Present-day Germany; Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg/Holy Roman Empire]: “[…] All idlers (‘Müssiggänger’), deliberate beggars, as well as other vagabonds and beggar-Jews who are currently present in our lands at the publication [of this ordinance], are warned that they should no longer found to be present here. […] violators are to be jailed with nothing but bread and water for 8 days and then removed from the land as quickly as possible. Children are to be placed in local poor-houses to be raised […] 5) […] Beggar-Jews, however, shall be severely punished with a hard prison sentence of 10 -14 days […] and thrown into the worst dog-holes* (‘Hudelöcher’) and flogged [and given nothing but] bread and water, and otherwise treated badly so that they will no longer feel the desire in the future to be seen in our lands […]” [Researcher’s note: Hundeloch (Hundelöcher pl.) – literally a dog-hole – or sometimes called Betzkämmerchen were historical (and regional) jail-like correctional institutions.]
Des Königreichs Hannover Landes-Gesetz und Verordnungen, insbesondere der Fürstenthümer Calenberg, Göttingen und Grubenhagen. In einem Auszug nach alphabetischer Ordnung gebracht von Friedrich Christoph Willich, Doctor der Rechte und königliche Großbritannisch Honnoverschen Rath. Erster Band. A – G. Zweyte Auflage. (“State Laws and Ordinäres of the Kingdom of Hannover, especially the principalities of Calenberg, Göttingen and Grubenberg. As abstracts in alphabetical order prepared by Friedrich Christoph Willich, JD, and Royal Britisch Council of Hannover. First Volume, A – G. Second issue.”); (Göttingen; 1825); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 8/24/2019