Jan. 2, 1788

“Customs-Patent” (‘Zollpatent’) issued by the Austrian Customs Authorities [Archduchy of Austria; Present-day Austria]: “[…] 1) Only [non-Jewish] businessmen in the cities and markets 2) Bohemian carters, and only in the customs/border cities (‘Legstätten’) of this kingdom […] and 3) Jews, who have been granted special permission by the authorities […] are allowed to trade with such items* […] [Wholesale] permits to Jews must be issued in writing […].” [Researcher’s note: *The restricted items were: cacao, coffee, animal feed, cloves, ginger, nutmeg-blossoms, nutmeg (nut), black and white pepper, ammonium sees (‘Semen Amonii’), tea, vanilla (‘Vaniglia’), cinnamon, sugar and sugar-syrup. While this ‘patent’ does not exclude Jews from trading with these items, it reestablishes the fact that Jews were required to apply for special permits to operate as a wholesaler in Austria.]
Handelsbuch der Handelsgesetze und des bei Anwendung derselben bei den Mercantil-Gerichten eintretenden Verfahrens, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf das Erzherzogthum Oesterreich unter der Enns. Von Christian Johann Paurnfeindt, wirklichen k. k. Rath und Referenten bei dem niederösterr. Mercantil- und Wechselgerichte; (Wien; 1836); (Trade book of commercial laws and its procedural application to the commercial/trade courts, with special consideration of the Archduchy of Austria under the Enns. By Christian Johann Paurnfeindt, real/true r[oyal] i[mperial] advisor and referent at the Lower Austrian commercial/trade and exchange court); (Vienna; 1836); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 9/13/2018