Jul. 4, 1793

Ordinance, issued by Frederick VII, King of Denmark and Norway, for the Grand Duchy of Holstein, the Dominion of Pinneberg, and the City of Altona [Present-day Germany]: “We, Christian the Seventh, herewith order to let it be known, that We have received first-hand information about the Jewish constitution allowing the making of contracts with clauses that refer to ‘mesiras modaah,’ or mental reservations, which at a later point in time might then be used in court to nullify the transaction on account of having agreed to it under duress. As such behavior cannot be reconciled with faithfulness and decency, while allowing sham oaths that are inadmissible under any circumstances, and whereas this makes any Jew-oaths, in court and elsewhere, highly unreliable; therefore, We find ourselves compelled to nullify everything that has been introduced in this way by Jewish law or its observance, and to order herewith that Jewish and Christian authorities and courts alike shall disregard the same; moreover, anyone who dares to include mental reservations in a contractual clause, from now on and including rabbis and elders, shall be regarded as unfaithful or perjurious and suffer arbitrary punishment. The head rabbi and the Jewish court of Altona, as well as everyone else concerned, is hereby instructed to appropriately follow this ordinance.”
Cohen, Asser Daniel. De Mosaiske troesbekjenderes stilling i Danmark forhen og nu: historisk fremstillet i et tidsløb af naesten 200 aar, tilligemed alle lovsteder og offentlige foranstaltninger dem angaande, som ere udkomne fra 1651 til 1836. (The position of the Mosaic believers in Denmark, before and now: historically produced over a period of nearly 200 years, as well as all laws and public measures relating to the same which were published from 1651 to 1836). Forfatterens: Odense (Denmark), 1837. Page 165. Researched by Dominik Jacobs 6/12/2020