Apr. 3, 1875

Circular No. 4395, issued by the Russian Minister of the Interior [Present-day Russia]: “Jewish photographers are not permitted to open photographic establishments outside the Pale of Permanent Settlement, nor to enjoy as artisans the right of residing there.”

Russo-Jewish Committee. “Persecution of the Jews in Russia: with appendix containing a summary of special & restrictive laws.” Wertheimer, Lea & Co.: London, 1890. Page 63. Researched by Dominik Jacobs 1/11/2020