[Possible/Probable] Act VIII. of 1942 about the Regulation of the Legal Status of the Jewish Community [Hungary] [Provisional]: “Section 1. Act XLII. of 1895 about the Jewish religion shall be declared null and void. The Jewish religious community shall be declared to be a lawfully recognized religious community – Section 2. Schools, or other institutions […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance No.1” issued by General Hugo Schwab [Transnistria] [Provisional]: “The Jews will live in ghettos, colonies, and labor camps. All Jews at present in Transnistria who do not report to the authorities within ten days from the posting of this present order for the purpose of the fixing of their place of residence, will […]

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[Possible/Probable] Law issued by Prime Minister Ion Antonescu [Romania] [Provisional]: “General Staff Division II of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers (Cabinet of Military) I have the honor to make known: By employing Jews to work for universal use, they can make contact with people in our villages, where they try to make Communist propaganda […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Visa Restrictions for Jews” issued by General Enrique Peñaranda del Castillo [Bolivia]: “1) It is prohibited […] for national consuls to provide passports and tourist visas to Semitic elements.” [Researcher’s note: A copy of the same decree was posted in the Bolivian Consulate in Buenos Aires] Global Jewish Advocacy: Anti-Semitism: An Assault on Human Rights; Accessed […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Immigration ban on all Jews” issued by the Paraguayan Government [Paraguay]: “Paraguay has prohibited entrance of all Jews irrespective of their nationality or the class in which they are traveling.  […] the ban also applies to Jews who are on [en] route with visas from Paraguay’s consuls [issued] in various countries.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency; […]

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[Possible/Probable] Letter to all Jewish writers in Germany issued by the President of the Reich Literature Chamber [Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] It is the will of the Fuehrer and Chancellor that the conduct of the German cultural assets should be reserved for only suitable and reliable comrades. […] You are thereby prohibited to publish any literary […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Decree Stipulating the Nature of Relations between Muslims and non-Muslims” issued by Sulayman b. Yihya Habshush [Yemen] [Provisional]: “In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Beneficent. This is a decree, which the Jews must obey as commanded. They are obliged to observe everything in it. They are forbidden to disobey it. […] That is […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jews are to Receive Christian Education” issued by Nicholas I [Russia] [Provisional]: “The purpose of educating the Jews is to bring about their gradual merging with the Christian nationalities, and to uproot those superstitions and harmful prejudices which are instilled by the teachings of the Talmud.” “Antisemitism in Imperial Russia; Jews are to Receive […]

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[Possible/Probable] Maskilim to Govenors of the Pale – A Program for Russification 1841 [Russia] [Provisional]: “The Russian government’s objectives in the encouragement of enlightenment among the Jewish people [should be] special emphasis to the moral as opposed to the academic aspects of the education of the Jews… To pay special attention to the teaching of […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Pale of Settlement” issued by Tsar Nicholas I [Imperial Russia; Present-day Russia, Ukraine, Turkmenistan] (needs full date): “3. A permanent residence is permitted to the Jews [several provinces are named] Article 11. Jews who have gone abroad without a legal exit-permit are deprived of Russian citizenship and not permitted to return to Russia. 12. […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Governmental Instruction” issued by the Austrian Government and addressed to the representatives of the Jewry [Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “[…] In case the salaries of the employees/servants, who are in the service of the Jewish community in Vienna, are to be increased or such Individuals are to be retired, the highest permission (of the Royal […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Protection Letter” (‘Judenschutzbriefe’), issued by Landgrave Wilhelm IX of Hesse-Kassel, year 1790* [Holy Roman Empire; Present-day Germany; Principality of Orange-Nassau] [Provisional]: “By the grace of God, We, Wilhelm the ninth, Landgrave to Hesse […] announce herewith publicly that we have taken on the Jews – with the reservations of previous ordinances – and allowed them […]

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[Possible/Probable] Body Toll Tax for “Coin Jews” decree issued by the Court Chancellery to the “Bancodeputation*” [Austria] [Provisional]: “The ‘Bancodeputation’* is as asked to order the ‘toll booth owners’ of Vienna (Linienwegmautinhabern) in response to the ‘body toll lease’ (Leibmautpachtung) and to hire a soldier for 17 Kreuzern to accompany Jews to the ‘Toll Leasing […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance on behalf of Maria Theresa via the Lower-Austrian government addressing the Magistrate of Vienna” [Lower-Austria; Austria] [Provisional]: “Jews are not [to] be tolerated among Christians and are prohibited to open up kitchens (Garkuchel) anywhere near Christians and under no circumstances in homes that house Christians.” Braumüller, Wilhelm: Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance” of the Feuderheim/ [City] of Mannheim, year 1766 [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “The local Jews here may drive no more than one cow to the pasture and [must] refrain from any kind of illegal activities (‘allem Verschleifs enthalten’) to avoid severe punishment.” [Researcher’s note: In 1730 it was ordered that Jews could not own more […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Privilege” (‘Privilegium’) of King Stanislaw Augustus, year 1765 [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “Jews are prohibited to purchase leather in the streets of the city [of Schwerin].” [Researcher’s note: The above is a translation of a German summary of the original Latin text.] Mitteilungen des Gesamtarchivs der Deutschen Juden. Herausgegeben von Eugen Täubler. Vierter Jahrgang. (“Communications […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Police Ordinance” issued by the Authorities [Present-day Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary] [Provisional]: “[…] 12) Jews are prohibited to send letters around to solicit wedding gifts, except to relatives. […] They are prohibited to have [access to] trade money which they [are known to] collect for weddings on markets. 16) A Jewish marriage […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish [Entry]Toll/Tax” issued by the Royal[ly appointed] Deputation [Moravia] [Provisional]: “[…] 5) […Jews are permitted to enter the city after paying the required entrance-fee …], however, hereto, it is strictly prohibited […] for any Jew to dare to enter the city on a Sunday or holy-day. […]” [Researcher’s note: Even if Jews were required by […]

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[Possible/Probable] Order issued by Pope Benedict XIV [Present-day Italy] [Provisional]: “Should a Christian find a Jewish child in danger of death, he will certainly do something praiseworthy and most pleasurable to God by procuring eternal health for the child through baptismal water.” “The Popes Against the Jews; The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Edict” of King Louis XV of France [France/Louisiana; Present-day United States] [Provisional]: “The edict of the late King Louis XIII of glorious memory […] shall be in force in our province and colony of Louisiana, in the execution of which, we enjoin the directors of said company*, and all of our officers, to remove […]

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[Possible/Probable] “General-Protection-Patent” (“Generalschutzpatent”) issued by the Prussian Government [Present-day Germany, Poland, Russia; Duchy of Brandenburg/Prussia] [Provisional]: “[…] The Jews of Frankfurt are strictly prohibited to export any raw goods from the country. […]” Stern, Selma: Der Preussische Staat und die Juden; Erster Teil/Die Zeit des Großen Kurfürsten und Friedrichs I; (“The Prussian State and the […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Ordinance” issued in Yiddish by the Bishoprics** of Metz, 1697* [France] [Provisional]: “[…] Young (Jewish) men and women, and particularly servants of both sexes, are not permitted to go to a dance at night without having been invited, under penalty of a fine of one Reichstahler.” [Researcher’s note: The exact date of this […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Legislation” issued in Yiddish by the Bishoprics* of Metz [Papal France; Present-day France]: “It has also been decided that all women ought to wear a cloak and veil when going to the synagogue. Women who are not yet fifteen years old may go to the synagogue without a cloak or veil, but as […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Legislation” issued in Yiddish by the by the Bishoprics* of Metz [Papal France; Present-day France]: “[…] until now, the non-Jews might have supposed the gold worn by the Jewish women on their garments and clothes was imitation, while now they are positive that it is genuine. For this reason [an] announcement is made […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Legislation” issued in Yiddish by the Bishoprics** of Metz [Papal France; Present-day France]: “[…] Shoes or other footgear in red or blue leather or in any other color except black and white are forbidden to every(one) [Jew]**. The same rule applies to footgear of velvet or any other silken fabric, fringed or stitched, […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Order” of the government addressed to the City Council of Dresden [Margrave of Meissen; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] Jews are not to be tolerated in Dresden (except during and) outside* of the annual markets. […]” [Researcher’s note: *The notion of “ausserhalb der Jahrmärkte” in German refers to both the concepts of time and space and […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Rescript to the Secret Council of Cologne” issued by Duke Fredrick William of Prussia [Prussia / Present-day Germany and Poland] [Provisional]: “Jews are allowed to remain in the country in return for a cash payment of at least 4000 Reichstaler. Those who refuse to make the payment are to leave the country within 6 […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Privilege (Order)” issued by Count Franz Ernst Schlick [Present-day Austria; City of Saint Peter] [Provisional]: “[…] henceforth no Jew is permitted to live in the city of Saint Peter and its suburbs […] their homes, including the synagogue, are to be sold off to the citizens. […]” Bondy, Gottlieb and Franz Dworsky: Geschichte der […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Regulations” issued by Cardinal di Lione and Cardinal S. Onofrio, year 1636 [Papal States; Present-day Vatican City, Italy, France] [Provisional] [Provisional]: “[…] Jews are to return to [wearing] the old yellow[-colored] hats […].” [Researcher’s note: In the early 17th century, it had become fashionable for Jews to wear dark orange (almost crimson-colored) hats in […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish-Ordinance” issued by the Council of the Imperial City of Wimpfen,* year 1630 [Imperial City of Wimpfen; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] schools and synagogues may not be built [anywhere in the city while] private gatherings (of Jews) to pray are allowed. […]” [Researcher’s note: *This Jewish Ordinance of Wimpfen is basically a renewal of […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Land Decree” (‘Landesdekret’) issued by the Government of Bohemia [Present-day Czech Republic] [Provisional]: “[…] it is ordered: a) that they (Jews) are not permitted to purchase any stolen items, and when this has [indeed] happened, shall return such items to its [original] owner. b) They shall not have anything entered into the state records […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Prohibition to Property Owners” by the Municipal Administration (“Stadtverwaltung”) (1627) [Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “[…] [aristocratic] land-owners (‘Landesinsassen’) shall not settle or permit Jews to live in their territories at libitum [at will] without the explicit permission of the Duke […].” [Researcher’s note: This law was the result of a complaint brought forth by Christian […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish-Ordinance” issued by the Council of the Imperial City of Wimpfen,* year 1626 [Imperial City of Wimpfen; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] Only four Jewish families chosen by the council are to be taken into protection (allowed to settle) but not as citizens […] they are to swear an Jewish oath to be loyal and […]

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[Possible/Probable] Behavior Code of Abul Hassan Lari [Present-day Iran] [Provisional]: “2. Jews may not circulate freely among the Believers. 3. In their stores Jews must sit on low stools, in order that they not see the purchaser’s face. 4. Jews must wear a specially constructed hat of eleven colors. 5. Around this hat they must sew […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Toll/Tax Ordinance of Finstermünz,*” (Zollordnung) year 1618 [Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “Jews passing through on foot pay 10 Kreuzer* those on horseback pay 20 Kreuzer**.” [Researcher’s note: The above is a translation of a summary of the original text from an authoritative source. *Finstermünz (called now Altfinstermünz) is a strategic Medieval court city and border fortification which was […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Ordinance” issued in Yiddish by the Polish Police [Poland] [Provisional]: “One is permitted to wear only two rings on weekdays, four on the Sabbath, and six on the holidays. Both men and women are absolutely forbidden to wear precious stones. An exception is made in the case of a pregnant woman, who is […]

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[Possible/Probable] Decree issued by Pope Paul V [Present-day Italy] [Provisional]: “…persons of Jewish descent shall not be admitted to canonicates of cathedrals, dignities in brotherhoods, and offices entrusted with the care of souls.” “Constantine’s Sword.” James Carroll. Page 381

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[Possible/Probable] Decree concerning Jews entering the City of Kaufbeuren around 1600 [Germany] [Provisional]:  “No Jew or Jewess shall be allowed into the city, unless he pays a guardian at the city gate. They are to go with the Jews and pay attention to what they do. For every hour the Jews must pay a crown […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish-Ordinance” issued by the Council of the Imperial City of Wimpfen,* year 1598 [Imperial City of Wimpfen; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] the honorable, guarded/careful, and wise council of Wimpfen have felt/noticed (‘befunden’) that foreign Jews are seen in and around Wimpfen and often appear in the city, especially during market days, trade/act/bargain (‘hanndlen/), do […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Constitution of the Jews” issued by the Polish Police [Poland] [Provisional]: “It is forbidden to go through the streets the streets at night playing or musical instruments, nor shall anyone, whether householders, young men, or boys, should or yell in the streets. If a person does such things, or if a fight breaks out at […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Prohibition” issued by the Cardinal Rusticucci, year 1593 [Papal States; Present-day Vatican City, Italy, France] [Provisional]: “[…] Jews are forbidden to sew/make clothes out of new fabric. […]” [Researcher’s note: This prohibition had fallen into obscurity until the Christian tailors and dressmakers in Rome grew envious of the Jewish competition in the early 17th […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Toll/Tax” Ordinance (Zollordnung) of Seefeld, year 1580 [Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “A Jew passing through pays one Gulden*.” [Researcher’s note: It appears that there was no attempt made to distinguish between Jews on foot and those on horseback in Seefeld in terms of the payment that was required. *A Gulden was a historical German and Dutch gold coin. […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Special Taxation of Jews” issued by the Landgraviate of Hesse, year 1571 [Present-day Germany; Landgraviate of Hesse] [Provisional]: “[…] Also, a Jew – as often as he passes through [the City of Gemünden] – gives each time 1 Albus* (‘alb’) [and] 3 dice [in the form of] tariffs/customs/tolls (‘Würfelzoll’) […]” [Researcher’s note: “…item ein […]

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[Possible/Probable] Act issued by King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland & Grand Duke of Lithuania [Present-day Lithuania / Poland] [Provisional]: “The Jews shall not wear costly clothing, nor gold chains, nor shall their wives wear gold or silver ornaments. The Jews shall not have silver mountings on their sabers and daggers; they shall be distinguished by characteristic […]

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[Possible/Probable] Council of Milan under Pope Pius IV [Present-day Italy] [Provisional]: “We strenuously demand of the rulers that they designate… a certain place in which Jews shall live apart from Christians. And if any Jews have homes of their own in the city, they must sell them to Christians within six months…” Conciliarum omnium generalium et […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Decree” of King Ferdinand [Present-day Czech Republic] [Provisional]: “The Jews of Prague should once a week attend a Jesuit sermon in the Salvator-Kirche (church) and should send their children thither.” The Jewish Encyclopedia: The History, Religion Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People From the Earliest Times to the Present Day; edited by Isidore […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Toll/Tax Ordinance (‘Zollverordnung’) of Rovereto,” year 1560 [Present-day Italy] [Provisional]: “Jews passing through on foot pay 10 Kreuzer […] those on a horse pay 20 Kreuzer.” Studien zur Geschichte und Gesellschaft Vorarlbergs. Regionalstudie zur Geschichte einer Weltanschauung [-] Antisemitismus in Vorarlberg. Herausgegeben von Werner Dreier in Zusammenarbeit mit der Johann-August-Malin-Gesellschaft. Gedruckt mit Unterstützung des […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Imperial/Royal Police Ordinance” issued by Imperial Police Authorities, year 1551 [Kingdom of Bavaria; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] Jews may not cede/sell their demands they hold on one Christian to another Christian without voiding [the demand]. […]”  [Researcher’s note: This ordinance prohibited Jews from selling IOUs or any contract they held with any Christians without […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Dice-Tax” (‘Würfelzoll’)* of Tyrol, year 1550 [Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “[…] each Jew pays 30** dice [when crossing.] [Researcher’s note: The above is a translation of a summary from an authoritative source. The ‘Würfelzoll’ (dice-tax) was a Jewish ‘Leibzoll’ (body tax) in the Middle Ages all the way up to the 17th Century. Its origins […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance” (“Landesordnung”) issued by the Moravian Government [Present-day Czech Republic] [Provisional]: “[…] The Jews are not to/may not live in villages, or hold markets, but only in cities and markets. […]” [Researcher’s note: It is unclear from the old original text whether the ordinance meant to say that Jews are only permitted […] to […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Order” issued by the Council of Constance, year 1540 [Prince-Bishopric of Constance; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “Henceforth, no Jew may enter the city and its jurisdiction without having given a sufficient commitment (‘genugsame Verschreibung’) that he’s neither going to lend, purchase, exchange or in any other fashion trade in Constance or with the citizens, residents, […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Ordinance” issued by Landgrave Philipp of Hesse, year 1539 [Present-day Germany; Landgraviate of Hesse] [Provisional]: “[…] 1) […] Jews are not to attack/insult the Christian belief in any way and are to live according to the Torah and not the teaching of the Talmud. 2) [… Jews] are not to build new synagogues. 3) […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Toll/Customs Ordinance” (Zollordnung) of Kintzheim (‘Kungßheim’), year 1535* [Present-day France] [Provisional]: “16) Addendum. No toll/customs officer shall permit a Jew or Jewess to pass through without paying a toll [of 2 [Gulden]; [a] dead Jew, if he crosses pays 1 fl [Gulden].” [Researcher’s note:  It appears that #16 was an addendum to the original text. […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Ordinance” issued by Ferdinand I [Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “Ordinance as to how to henceforth deal with local and resident Jews who are the royal property (‘Kammergut’) […], as well as all foreign Jews who come to Vienna from other places; […] all foreign Jews, who stay in the city of Vienna or its […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance” issued by the Conrad III of Thuringia, year 1526 [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] 43) We also want and order that the Jews are not exempt (not forbidden) from appearing in court and from swearing an oath on their Sabbath, and command for the benefit of the common good that they shall not practice […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Edict” issued by the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg Georg Schenk of Limpurg [Germany] [Provisional]: “… and we also command that Jews in general and in particular are not allowed to enter or to pass through our cities, markets and places, courts and territories, They may not have any community or trade with others. Be it […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Synod” issued by Bishop Georg Schenk von Limpurg, 1506 [Prince-Bishop of Bamberg; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] 44) Christians and Jews are not to have any fellowship with each other [… including in terms of eating and drinking], […] buying and selling or any other kind, since all of the above mentioned matters can lead […]

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[Possible/Probable] Employment of Christian Servants Prohibited to Jews [Germany] [Provisional]: “It is not allowed for Jews to employ Christians in their houses on a permanent basis, as it has been banned by the popes. It is however allowed that Jews hire Christians as day laborers as long as they don’t spend the night in the […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Medical Ordinance” (‘Medizinalverordnung’) issued in the Principality of Frankonia, year 1502 [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] Jews are not permitted to be (hold a practice) as doctors. […]” Die Juden in Franken.  Ein unpartheiischer Beitrag zur Sitten- und Rechtsgeschichte Frankens von Dr. Ludwig Heffner, praktischer Arzt zu Würzburg, Konservater des historischen Vereins daselbst. Mit 29 […]

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[Possible/Probable] Toll/Custom (Zollordnung) Tariff of Fernstein near Tyrol, year 1500 [Archduchy of Austria/House of Habsburg; Present-day Austria] [Provisional]: “If a Jew comes/walks (‘fürget’)* or rides [across] and does not announce himself**, he forfeits his body and possessions, if he however announces himself, he is to pay as much as a swine/pig*** which is four (‘fierer’ [=1/5 Austro-Hungarian […]

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[Possible/Probable] King John II, 1481 [Present-day Spain] [Provisional]: “As to the clothes of Jews…they are to wear the customary sign of a star…on the pit of the stomach.” Pearlson, Twelve Centuries of Jewish Persecution (1898): 251, Researched and Translated by Joan Paez 2/24/2016

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[Possible/Probable] “Expulsion of Jew” issued by the Parliament [Present-day Austria, Slovenia] [Provisional]: “[…] henceforth, no Jews shall be tolerated in Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Styria (‘Österreich, Kärnthen, Krain und der Steyermark’) […]” Engelman, Wilhelm: Das Judentum in Oesterrich und die böhmischen Unruhen (“The Jewry in Austria and the bohemian Unrest”); (Leipzig; 1845); Researched and Translated […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Order” issued by Pope Callixtus III, year 1456 [Papal States; Present-day Vatican City, Italy, France] [Provisional]: [Reiterates and confirms most of Pope Eugene’s ‘Dundum ad nostram audientiam’ (papal bull) issued on June 5, 1442 and adds] “the confiscated property of Jews […] can be used for the expedition against the Saracens. […]” [Researcher’s note: […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance and Statutes Regarding Jews” issued by Bishop Gottfried of Würzburg, 1453 [Archbishopric of Würzburg; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “Gottfried (‘Gotfried’), Bishop of Würzburg and Duke of Frankonia, after we have taken to heart such serious complaints from his* and the subjects in his* Stift [a territory in the Holy Roman Empire that enjoyed the […]

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[Possible/Probable] Decree at Santarem, 1451 [Present-day Spain] [Provisional]: “Jews…shall not be permitted to wear silk dresses.” Pearlson, Twelve Centuries of Jewish Persecution (1898): 251, Researched and Translated by Joan Paez 2/24/2016

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[Possible/Probable] 1438 [Present-day Spain] [Provisional]: “No Jew…shall hold any office in the household of the king, queen, infantes, noblemen, or prelates; Jews shall not have Christian boys or girls in their service for hire of gratis…” Pearlson, Twelve Centuries of Jewish Persecution (1898): 251, Researched and Translated by Joan Paez 2/24/2016

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[Possible/Probable] Council of Basle [Present-day Italy] [Provisional]: “So that an excessive amount of conversations with the Jews may be avoided, they are compelled to live in certain places of the cities and towns, separated from the homes of Christians and as far away from churches as is possible.” Conciliarum omnium generalium et provincialium Collectio Regia Vol. […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Privilege” issued by Emperor Sigismund, 1431 [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “We, Sigismund, Roman King […] grant our dear and loyal mayor (‘Burgermeister’) and [city] council of Heidingsfeld (‘Haidingsfeld’)* and Mainbernheim (‘Bernheim’) for their great service which they have bestowed upon us in the past and will do so in the future [… permission] to accept […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Rescript” issued by Emperor Sigismund, 1429 [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “We, Sigismund, […] permit the city of Schweinfurt to settle Jews and Jewess – our royal chamber servants – for 20 years and to tax and punish them – [… however, in such a way] so that the taxes be used for the benefit of […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance” addressed directly to Jews [Present-day Czech Republic and Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] that you [Jews] shall no longer be permitted to work, build, construct, smear, sew – or whatever you may call it – for Christians. That means, you may still sew, […], bake bread, ferment beer, forge [metal], cut meat, weave, construct, built, […]

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[Possible/Probable] Papal Bull by Pope Benedict XIII [Present-day Spain] (Needs full date): “2. Jews are to be punished and convicted of blasphemy for reading or listening to slanderous works written about Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary… 3. Jews will be punished who speak ill of our Lord Jesus Christ, his mother the Virgin Mary, any […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Charter” (‘Freibrief’) of Johann II, Bishop of Würzburg, 1412  [Bishopric of Würzburg; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “We, Johann, chosen/elected (‘Erwelter’) of the Stift [a territory in the Holy Roman Empire that enjoyed the status of a free imperial state] (Bishopric) of Würzburg by the grace of God, publicly announce with this letter/charter that […*] the […]

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[Possible/Probable] Concilium Herbipolense, Capitulum 24 (1407 AD) [Present-day Germany.] [Provisional]: “They are not to discuss the Catholic faith with the common man; they may not dare to keep unwilling sons or wives from approaching the path of the Christians; they should not visit sick Christians, nor practice medicine around them.” Concilia Germaniae, v.5, 11, Researched and […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Law” of Maria de Luna of Aragon [Present-day Spain; Kingdom of Aragon] [Provisional]: “[…] because these perfidious Jews are thirsty for Christian blood, as enemies would be, and it is dangerous for Christians to obtain any medical help from Jewish doctors when they are sick […] we ordain and establish that no Jew, in any […]

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[Possible/Probable] Code Regulae Juris “ad Decus,” No. CXXXIII [Germany] [Provisional]: “Jews shall not bear arms.” Manuscript J 15, CXXXIII. Published in: Kisch, Jewry Law in Medieval Germany, New Jersey 2003, page 121. Researched and Translated by Franziska Wagener 4/15/2016

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[Possible/Probable] “Official Registry” of Archbishop of Peter of Mainz, year 1389* [Archbishopric of Mainz; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] the Jews are required to submit two pounds of pepper [corns] to [the estate] of the Archbishop at the beginning of each year. […]” [Researcher’s note: Peppercorns, like many other spices, were extremely valuable and often hard to […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Regulations” issued for Coburg by Margrave Katharine and her Sons [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] pawnbroking is permitted to Jews except with chasubles, bloody garments, wet hats, and cuirasses/armor/harnesses (‘Harnische’) from the castle in Coburg. Jews who wish to move away from Coburg may do so unhindered, but may not owe any outstanding taxes […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Special Taxation of Jews” issued by Charles V [France] [Provisional]: “[Jews must pay] … an entry fee of fourteen florins per head of household and one florin for each member, and, in addition, seven florins per year and by ‘land tenure’ and a florin for each family member.” Les expulsions des Juifs de France, […]

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[Possible/Probable] Law of evidence issued in Magdeburg [Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] For about money no Jew’s oath is permissible against Christian persons and no Jew may convict a Christian man about money. […]” Magdeburg-Breslauer Systematisches Schoeffenrecht III, 2, 38. Translated by Guido Kisch, The Jews in Medieval Germany, Chicago 1949, page 262, Researched by Franziska Wagener

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[Possible/Probable] “Ordinance” issued by Archbishop Ernst von Pardubitz of Prague [Present-day Czech Republic] [Provisional]: “The appearance, [and] the similarity in the external appearances, which the Jews demonstrate with the Christians in [terms of] clothing, often leads to the danger that Christen men intermingle with Jewish women by mistake and Jews with Christian women. In order […]

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[Possible/Probable] Ordinance “De solutione census per Judaeorum” issued by Carl IV [Present-day Czech Republic] [Provisional]: “[…] Should a Jew receive a pledge in exchange to the debt owed to him, he may not sell it without acquiring authorisation and consent […] or be punished with disfavor and the confiscation of the pledge itself.” Stein, Abraham […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Regulation” of Altstadt (“Old District/City”) of Salzwedel [Present-day Germany; Hanseatic League] [Provisional]: “[…] that the Jews who reside in our city may only slaughter [animals] for their own use starting on “Dionysiustag (October 16) for four weeks but not for foreign Jews.” Salzwedel, StadtA (“Salzwedel, City Archive”), Rep. II, I, C, Nr./No. 3, fol. 52 […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Regulation” issued by the Councilmen of Salzwedel [Present-day Germany; Hanseatic League] [Provisional]: “[…] Jews residing in Salzwedel shall only slaughter [animals] between Walburgistag (May 1) and Martinstag/Saint Martin’s Day (November 11) which they may only do for their own use, but not for foreign Jews or for the sale at the markets. […] between Gall’s […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Legislation” in the Second Oath Book of the City of Cologne [Present-day Germany; Electorate of Cologne] [Provisional]: “[…] the [City] Council no longer permits a Jew or a Jewess or anyone else on their behalf to purchase any items of inheritance (inherited estates) from Christians, except with the explicit authorization of the City Council. […]

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[Possible/Probable] Writ of Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV [Present-day Hungary] [Provisional]: “Emperor Louis forgives/absolves the Cistercian cloister in Waldsassen of all of their debts which they owed to the Jews near/at Eger.” [Researcher’s note: The above is a translation of a German summary of a copy of the original Latin text, which has been lost. However, […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Diocesan Synod of Breslau/Wroclaw” (‘Constitutions’) of Bishop Nanker of Breslau/Wroclaw [Prince Bishopric of Breslau/Wroclaw; Present-day Poland] [Provisional]: “[…] Also, the wretched Jews, who have been subjected to permanent bondage (servitude) by their own guilt, (continue) to refuse to distinguish themselves in their clothing from that of the Christians, because they wear hoods such as the clerics […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Oath” as issued in the “Privilege” of Duke Bolkos II [Duchy of Silesia/House of Wettin; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…During the oath] the Jew must wear grey trousers and a grey skirt […] but no shirt […] on his head he must wear a pointed hat.  […] He is to stand barefoot on a […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Statutes” of the City of Saalfeld, year 1326 [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] 74) […] that we* give the City Council of Saalfeld (‘Salveld’) four fat goose […] which the Jews of Saalfeld [… must] submit – two in the evening of Saint Burchardi Day [October 13] and two in the evening of Saint Martin’s […]

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[Possible/Probable] “City Law” of Strasbourg [Present-day France; Free Imperial City of Strasbourg] [Provisional]: “[…] 1) within the city of Strasbourg and its castle region (Burghanngebiets), Jews are not allowed to have possessions or inheritance. 2) Jews are entitled to only one synagogue by law, but are not permitted to use any [private] homes/houses as a […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jewish Ordinance to Strasbourg” issued by the City Council of Strasbourg, year 1320* [Free Imperial City of Strasbourg; Present-day France] [Provisional]: “[…] no Jew may have or inherit [land] in the city of Strasbourg or anywhere near the burg […] henceforth (‘hinnen furder’) […]” [Researcher’s note: The exact date for this ordinance appears to […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Jews. [Their] conduct during Good Friday” issued by the [City] Council of Zurich [Present-day Switzerland] [Provisional]: “One orders/writes to all Councils: The local Jews and Jewesses are not to be seen through windows or on the streets as soon as they hear the [church-]bells ring between [Good] Wednesday and Holy Saturday, and in their homes, […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Diocesan Synod of Brixen” held under Bishop Johannes von Schlackenwert [Present-day Italy; Prince-Bishopric of Brixen] [Provisional]: “[…] Jews may not appear in public among/in the company of Christians on Good Friday. Furthermore, they should distinguish themselves in their attire from Christians at all times. They should not be used as judges or in any other […]

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[Possible/Probable] Ordinance issued by the Court of Burgos (1315) [Present-day Spain] [Provisional]: “Art. 27 – We order that whatever Christians owe to Jews on account of letters of debt, the Christians shall pay the Jews two thirds of the principal, while the remaining third shall be nullified, and nothing more shall be owed, in usury […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Constitution” issued by the Council of Zamora, 1313 AD [Spain] [Provisional]: “1. Thirty days are allowed to all Jews that now do or hereafter reside in our province, for the execution hereof. That in criminal, civil, and all other causes, they shall not oppose nor defend themselves by the privilege they have; saying that […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Statutes” of the City of Mühlhausen, year 1311* [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…]1) Any debt a citizen holds of another citizen may not be passed on to a Jew for usurious interest (‘ad iudeos sub usura’) or at a disadvantage to a Christian** or he shall be fined with one Mark and a penalty or […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Peace Commandment of Mainz” ordinance issued by the City of Mainz [Present-day Germany; Free Imperial City of Mainz] [Provisional]: “[…] if a Jew injures/wounds or hits/beats another Jew or Christian in Mainz, he has to pay five Pounds Heller for the beating and 10 Pounds Heller for the injury, and may remain in Mainz; […]

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[Possible/Probable] Statutes of the Council of Vich (Catalonia) (1299) [Present-day Spain, France] [Provisional]: “Jews are to wear a badge so large and of a distinct color on their breast, that they may be seen and recognized. Furthermore, we prohibit them from having Christian nurses. Meat butchered by Jews shall not be sold to the Christian […]

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[Possible/Probable] “Diocesan Synod of Würzburg” issued under Bishop Manegold [Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “We have established that sacred objects are not permitted to be pawned off, except during times of [financial] distress of the church and only with the approval of the parishioners. Chalices and holy garments are not to be left with […]

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[Possible/Probable] Instructions to clergy, issued by the Bishop of Montpellier [Present-day France] [Provisional]: “If Jews and Christians have been warned three times about providing domestic service to Jews, yet persist in their actions, then the Christian will be excommunicated and the Jew denied the communion of the faithful. Christians are also prohibited from grinding the […]

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[Possible/Probable] Statutes of the Synod of Arles (at Lille) (1288) [Present-day France] [Provisional]: “XII., Item VI. Jews are to wear unlike signs on their breasts. They are not to have Christian nurses, partake of foods in common with Christians, or appear in public at Eastertime.” Grayzel, Solomon. The Church and the Jews in the XIIIth […]

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