Jan. 31, 429

“Decree Regarding Jews” issued by Emperors Theodosius and Valentinian and addressed to Count of Imperial Largesses John [Roman Empire; Present-day Italy, Turkey]: “We order by this law, which shall be valid for all time, that none of the Jews (to whom all administrations and dignities are forbidden), shall perform the duties of municipal defender, nor do We permit them to assume the honor of father of the city, lest, strengthened by the authority of the office which they have obtained, they may have the power of judging, or of promulgating decrees against Christians, as well as frequently against the bishops of our holy religion themselves, and, by so doing, insult our faith. (1) We also, for the same reason, direct that no Jewish synagogue shall be constructed of new materials, but permission is given to repair such old ones as are threatened with ruin. (2) Hence, any Jew who may have received an office cannot enjoy the dignity which he has acquired; or if he has surreptitiously obtained a public employment which is forbidden, he shall, by all means, be deprived of it; or if he should build a synagogue, he is hereby notified that he has labored for the benefit of the Catholic Church; and those who have, by craft, obtained honors and dignities, shall be considered to remain in the same condition in which they previously were, even though they may have been unlawfully promoted to an honorable rank.
He who has begun the construction of a new synagogue, not with the intention of repairing an old one, shall be condemned to pay fifty pounds of gold, and be deprived of the work which he is already presumed to do; and, moreover, it is hereby decreed that his property shall be confiscated, and that he shall be condemned to the penalty of death, as one who, by his false doctrine, has attacked the faith of others.”
Scott, Pearson Samuel: The Civil Law, Book XII; (Cincinnati; 1932). Researched by Ziba Shadjaani 2/10/2017