Aug. 29, 1239

Papal Bull “Significantibus Dilectis Filiis,” issued by Pope Gregory IX to the Bishop of Cordova [present-day Spain]: “Know that at the instance of our dear sons, the clerics of the districts and dioceses of Cordova and Baeza, we have learned that whenever, as often happens, the Christians of these districts and dioceses have to leave their homes and property and remain away for a long time occupied in fighting and pursuing the Saracens, the Jews as often run about the districts and cities of these provinces and dioceses, bearing no visible sign, and, in order to deceive the Christians even more, claiming that they are themselves Christians. They thus kidnap Christian boys, and steal whatever else they can, and sell them to the Saracens. Nor are they afraid to commit other enormities likewise in injury of the Christian name and the scandalization and ruin of many. Wherefore, since, in order that evils of this sort might be the more easily and completely avoided, the General Council decided after careful deliberation, that Jews of either sex shall in all Christian lands and at all times be distinguished from Christians by the nature of their clothes, we, by Apostolic Letters, inform Your Fraternity that we desire you to compel the Jews of Cordova and of the province and diocese of Baeza to wear the said sign, in accordance with the decree, by which they may be distinguished from Christians. You shall do so by removing them from communication with the faithful, who shall be forced to obedience by the secular arm if need be. You may grant no appeal.”
Grayzel, Solomon. Church And the Jews In the XIIIth Century: a Study of Their Relations During the Years 1198-1254, Based On the Papal Letters And the Conciliar Decrees of the Periods. The Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning: Philadelphia PA, 1933. P. 245. Researched by Dominik Jacobs 8/1/2019