ca. 1281

Order issued by Alfonso the Wise [Spain] [Unconfirmed]

Commentary from other sources:
1) “Alfonso the Wise took offense at Jews not when he was gathering power, but when he began to lose it. Toward the end of his reign, he was betrayed by his son Sancho, who led a revolt against him (1280-1281). Alfonso’s fierce reaction included an apparently out-of-the-blue attack on the very Jews with whom he had been so intimate. …Jews of Toledo were imprisoned in their own synagogues. The wealthiest among them were made to pay exorbitant ransoms. Many were tortured and forced to convert.”
James Carroll: “Constantine’s Sword.” p. 328

2) “Alfonso X ordered the imprisonment of the Jews in their synagogues, from which they were not to be released until the community paid him a special tax. Notables of the community remained in prison for many months. Attempts were even made there to convert them and several were executed.”
Haim Beinart: “Toledo.”