ca. 1311 C.E.

“Statutes” of the City of Mühlhausen, year 1311* [Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…]1) Any debt a citizen holds of another citizen may not be passed on to a Jew for usurious interest (‘ad iudeos sub usura’) or at a disadvantage to a Christian** or he shall be fined with one Mark and a penalty or one month of expulsion from the city. Instead, the debtor is to be made to repay the debt legally in court. 2) The meat of livestock/cattle, which a Jew has slaughtered, may not be sold in a butcher shop but only outside of it [or see a fine] of ten shillings. […] 4) Councilmen are not permitted to tax Jews individually but must require [such taxes] from the Jewry as a whole at a specific date of a year […] except when a foreign Jew arrives [new to the city]. […]” [Researcher’s note: *While these statutes were initially written down in 1311, other sections were appended and crossed out as late as 1351. **The words ‘at a disadvantage to a Christian’ were added at a later time. ]
Mühlhausen i. Th., StadtA, Statuten der Stadt Mühlhausen von 1311, 10/T 8c, fol. 10r, 17r, 18v, 19v, und 28v., dt. und lat. (“Mühlhausen i[n] T[huringia], City Archive, Statutes of the City of Mühlhausen from 1311, 10/T 8c, fol. 10r, 17r, 18v, 19v, und 28v., German and Latin”); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 3/29/2018