Nov. 25, 1347

“Official Announcement” issued by Knight Johann vom Steine (“Iohan vom Steine”) [Archbishopric of Mainz; Present-day Germany]: “I, Iohan vom Steine, knight, agree and announce to all people […] that the honorable […] Henry [III], Archbishop of Mainz (‘Heinrich, ertzbischof zu Mentz’) and his [Arch-] Stift (prince-archbishopric) owe us 1000 small Gulden/Guilder* […] which the Kawertschen** and Jews of Bingen are to pay off each winter [by submitting] 100 Pounds (‘100 Pfund’) on Saint Martin’s Day […].” [Researcher’s note: *Gulden is a German and Dutch term for gold coins equivalent to the English term guilder. **The term Kawertschen referred to money-lenders.]
Würzburg, StA, Mainzer Urkunden 4076 und 4077, Orig., dt. Perg. (“Würzburg City Archive, Documents/Certificates of Mainz 4076 and 4077, Orig[inal], German, [on] Parchment Paper”); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 2/27/2018