Dec. 3, 1452

“Order” issued by Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa/Cusanus and addressed to the [City] Council of Frankfurt [Present-day Germany]: “When we spear-headed the Provincial Council of Mainz, the statutes of Jews – the enemies […] of Christ – were renewed […] and it was ordered to ensure that a sign would be adopted [… that would] distinguish [the Jews] from others – […] failure/refusal to do so, will result in […] excommunication. We determine that this sign shall be a ring/circle, movable and hanging from saffron-colored thread having a diameter that is not smaller than an average size finger of a man, to be worn on men’s breast, so that it catches the eye of everyone he meets; and for women, two blue stripes (‘duae rigac blavei coloris’) on their veil, so that they can be distinguishable from Christians.”
von Heister, Carl: Die Juden. Aufgebürdete Verbrechen.Erlittene Verfolgung. Angethane Schmach. Drei Kapitel aus Geschichtliche Untersuchungen über Israel (The Jews. Attributed/Insinuated Crimes. Suffered Persecution. Inflicted Humiliation. Three Chapters from the Historical Investigations on Israel.); (Naumburg; 1863); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 3/10/2018