Nov. 17, 1543

General Mandate of Ferdinand I [Habsburg Empire; Present-day Austria]: “We Ferdinand […] since it has come to our attention that Jews roam in and out [of the country] occasionally and dare to do business in the annual and weekly markets […] We are issuing a general mandate that, if Jews who arrive without a passport issued by Our Lower-Austrian government, are to be taken in immediately and questioned vigorously […] as to what they are intending to do in Our country […].  We suggest this to you with all seriousness and wish that you follow this mandate obediently […] and absolutely prohibit Jews from doing business on annual and weekly markets […] so that other citizens do not have to face any hardship. This is Our earnest will and opinion. […]”
Braumüller, Wilhelm: Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Juden in Wien. Erste Abteilung. Allgemeiner Teil 1526-1847. Erster Band. (Wien) 1918. p. 5-6; Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 2/27/2016 ADD ENGLISH TRANSLATION