Dec. 25, 1544

“Land-Mandate” (‘Landmandat’) issued by Bishop Melchior of Zobel [Present-day Germany]: “[…] all [practices of] usury by Jews is to be put an end to immediately, because many [Jews] have snuck into the Hochstift in recent years […] and the usurious Jews are not to receive any protection […] or any legal assistance to collect the usurious debt […] Jews of all ages must wear in public a visible yellow ring on their hats, caps, veils, coats or skirts […]”
Die Juden in Franken. Ein unpartheiischer Beitrag zur Sitten- und Rechtsgeschichte Frankens von Dr. Ludwig Heffner, praktischer Arzt zu Würzburg, Konservater des historischen Vereins daselbst. Mit 29 Urkunden-Beilagen (Nürnberg; 1855); (Jews in Frankonia. An Non-Partisan Contribution Regarding the Moral and Legal History of Franconia by Dr. med. Ludwig Heffner, practical physician to Würzburg, Conservator of the Historical Association there (of the same city). With 29 [Official] Documents Attached.); (Nuremberg; 1855); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 3/25/2018