ca. 1571

“Special Taxation of Jews” issued by the Landgraviate of Hesse, year 1571 [Present-day Germany; Landgraviate of Hesse] [Provisional]: “[…] Also, a Jew – as often as he passes through [the City of Gemünden] – gives each time 1 Albus* (‘alb’) [and] 3 dice [in the form of] tariffs/customs/tolls (‘Würfelzoll’) […]” [Researcher’s note: “…item ein Jud, so oft er Furzeucht [=durchzieht] gibt allemahl 1 alb 3 wurffell Zoll” …  *The word ‘alb’ refers to the Albus, which was a common currency in that region. It was common for Jews to pay a monetary fee when crossing a toll/bridge and (usually 3) valuable dice. This practice had morphed into a sick sport in later years – which still occurred all the way up to the 18th century  in which traveling Jews were asked to turn over any valuable dice when encountered. If they did not have any, they had to either pay a ransom or were beaten.]
Hecker, Horst: Jüdisches Leben in Frankenberg (“Jewish Life in Frankenberg by Horst Hecker”), 2011; Accessed online; Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 9/5/2018