Oct. 2, 1682

“Jewish Ordinance of Leipzig” (‘Leipziger Judenordnung’) issued by Elector John George III (‘Johann Georg III’) [Present-day Germany; Poland; Electorate of Saxony]: “By the grace of god, We, John George the third (‘Johann Georg der Dritte’), Duke of Saxony,  […] announce herewith […] 1) No Jew may pursue trade in Leipzig without an attest/certificate given by his local authority that he’s an honest businessman. 2) Except horse-Jews (‘Pferdejuden’)*, no one (Jews) shall lodge in the suburbs. 3) A Jew arriving at the [city] gate is to receive an indication-form (‘Angabezettel’) from the toll-officer […] 5) Report within 24 hours to the local city court and pay his protection-fee (‘Schutzgeld’) 6) [Jews must] carry the indication-form, protection and toll-permits as well as the little yellow patch (‘gelbe Flecklein’) on them at all times and present them to council-aids or state servant [when asked …]” [Researcher’s note: *This refers most likely to wealthier Jews who could afford to travel by horse. The above Jewish ordinance contains 23 paragraphs and has been abbreviated to fit the allocated space. The entire text can be found in the cited source.]
Allgemeiner Contorist welcher von allen und jeden Gegenständen der Handlung aller in und außer Europa gelegenen Handelsplätze die neusten und zuverlässigsten Nachrichten ertheilet; theils nach bewährten Quellen, theils auch, und insonderheit, nach eigener Erfahrung und Korrespondenz entworfen und in alphabetische Ordnung gebrach von Johann Christian Herrmann Kaufmann in Leipzig. Dritter Theil. (General [business] clerk who provides the latest and most reliable news of all occurrences in trade centers within and outside of Europe, partly based on reliable sources, and partly – and uniquely – based on personal experience and correspondence and broken down in alphabetic order by Johann Christian Herrmann, merchant in Leipzig. Part three.); (Leipzig; 1790); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 2/6/2020