Dec. 29, 1691

“Decree” issued by Emperor Leopold I [Present-day Czech Republic]: “[…] all Jews are required/obliged to wear a kind of [stiff neck] ruffles (‘eine Sorte von Krösen’) as a distinguishing sign in Bohemia […] those who violate this ordinance are to be punished severely. […]” [Researcher’s note: This ordinance placed Jews in severe danger on the countryside, because while they did not need to worry about being ambushed and robbed in the cities, they did so on the countryside. This (special) collar was easily made out from afar and attracted vagrants and riffraff, and Jews were often assaulted, mugged and mistreated – not rarely at the hands of soldiers. *This ordinance signed by Leopold I on December 29, 1691, and was received by the city authorities of Prague on January 3, 1692, and was published on January 4, 1692.]
Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Juden in the Cechoslov. Republik; I Jahrgang. Herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Samuel Steinherz; (Prag; 1929); (“Society for History of the Jews in the Czech Republic; Year’s Issue 1929; Published by Prof. Dr. Samuel Steinherz); (Prague; 1929); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 9/14/2017