Mar. 17, 1785

“Governmental Decree” issued by the Government of Prince-Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg [Present-day Germany; Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg/Holy Roman Empire]: “It has been reported [to us] that various Jews roam/run around (‘umherlaufen’) and pose as servants of protected Jews (‘Schutzjuden’) who in turn charge these vagabonds a certain annual fee and obtain passports from the authorities for them under the pretense that they work for them. However, since such protected Jews are in no way permitted to send around their servants to do all sorts of unknown trades in their district, much less in the neighboring ones […] that is why the local authorities are to keep a close eye on such Jews […] and to have them arrested along with any goods they may have on them — regardless of any passports/permits they may have connived to get — and to report [such incidences]. At the same time, all protected Jews are to be forewarned that they should not get involved in such activities in the future or lose their own protection.” [Researcher’s note: *Schutzjude (‘Schutzjuden pl.) were Jews who were given special permits to travel and/or settle in the land in which the permit was valid.]
Sammlung der Verordnungen und Ausschreiben welche für sämmtliche Provinzen des Hannoverschen Staats, jedoch was den Calenbergischen, Lüneburgischen, und Bremen- und Verdenschen Theil betrifft, seit dem Schlusse in denselben vorhandenen Gesetzessammlungen bis zur Zeit der feindlichen Usurpation ergangen sind. Mit Genehmigung des Königl. Cabinets-Ministerii herausgegeben von Ernst Spangenberg, Dr. beider Rechte und köngl. Großbritannisch, honnoverschem Hof- und Canzley-Rathe in der Justiz-Canzley zu Zelle. Dritter Theil, bis Jahre 1780 bis 1799 enthaltend. (“Collection of ordinances and decrees that apply to all provinces of the state of Hannover, however, as far as Calenberg, Lüneburg, Bremen, and Verden are concerned, it contains a collection of laws until the conclusion of the aforementioned [places] by the hostile usurpation. Published by Ernst Spangenberg, PhD. of both laws and royal, Britisch Hanoverian Court and Legal Council in the Justice Office in Zelle, with the permission of the royal Cabinet-Ministers. Third Volume until [from] 1780 until 1799 inclusive.”); (Hannover; 1821); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 8/21/2019