Jul. 18, 1801

“Regulation” issued by Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm III [Prussia; Present-day Germany, Poland, Belgium]: “[…] Jews in all of the provinces are to be regarded as ‘foreigners’ in all aspects of commerce and exchange (Handel und Wandel).”
Kreutzberger, Mark: Leo Baeck Institute New York Bibliothek und Archiv. Katalog, Vol. 1); (Tübingen; 1970) Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 12/5/2016