ca. 1905

“Decree Stipulating the Nature of Relations between Muslims and non-Muslims” issued by Sulayman b. Yihya Habshush [Yemen] [Provisional]: “In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Beneficent. This is a decree, which the Jews must obey as commanded. They are obliged to observe everything in it. They are forbidden to disobey it. […] That is that these Jews are guaranteed protection upon payment of the jizya by each adult male – from the rich, 48 silver qafla, which is equivalent to 3 3/4 riyal; from the middle class, 24 qafla, or 2 7/8 riyal; from the poor, 12 qafla, or 16/17 riyal. In this way, their blood is spared, and they are brought into the pact of protection. They may not avoid it. It is incumbent upon each individual to pay it prior to the year’s end into the hand of the person whom we have commended to receive it from them. […] Furthermore, they are required to pay on their commercial transactions whose value is equal to the legal taxable minimum, five percent per annum. […] The aforementioned jizya and tariff are incumbent upon them. They are not to assist each other against a Muslim. They may not build their houses higher than Muslim homes. They shall not crowd them in their streets. They may not turn them away from their watering places. […] They may not ride on saddles, but only sit sidesaddle. They may not wink or point to the nakedness of a Muslim. They may not display their Torah except in their synagogues. Neither shall they raise their voices when reading, nor blow their shofars loudly. Rather, a muffled voice will suffice. They are forbidden from engaging in reprehensible relations which bring down the wrath of Heaven. It is their duty to recognize the superiority of the Muslim and to accord him honor. […] The Jews shall conduct themselves as is required. They shall live in their homes and shall refrain from whatever is to be avoided. He [a Jew] is to carry this out and to conduct wisely the affairs of all who are under the Prophet’s pact of protection and under ours.” [Researcher’s note: The exact date of this decree is unknown.]
Center for Online Judiac Studies; Merorot, Eshkolot: The Yemenites, ed. S. D. Goitein; (Jerusalem, 1983); p.p. 190-91 (Arabic); Researched by Ziba Shadjaani 11/23/2016