ca. 1938

“Act XV of 1938” issued by Hungarian Government [Hungary] [Unconfirmed]

Commentary from other sources:
1) “Hungary did in fact adopt two major anti-Jewish laws before entering the war on the side of Germany, the first in 1938…Act XV of 1938 is known as the ‘first Jewish law’ despite earlier anti-Jewish legislation. Act XV was similar to the numerus clausus, but broader in scope, more discriminatory in language, and less ambiguous in intent. Whereas the 1920 legislation was confined to university admissions, this new law extended restrictions to journalism, film and fine arts, law, engineering, and medicine. In each case the proportion of Jews was not to exceed 20 percent. That this proportion is less draconian than the earlier restrictions is less an admission of the severity of the first numerus clausus than recognition of the potential economic harm to Hungary a lower threshold might pose. Unlike the earlier law, Act XV names Jews specifically as the target, and defines them in religious rather than racial terms.”
Wittenberg, Jason: “International Influences on anti-Jewish Legislation in Interwar Hungary.”; p. 8

2) “In Hungary, the first step toward a ‘racial’ discrimination among Hungarian citizens was the so-called first Jewish Law of 1938. It stipulated that the proportion of Jews in the chamber of the press, in the chamber of the theater and film, in the chambers of lawyers, engineers and medical doctors as well as in the professional jobs of certain companies should not go beyond twenty percent.”
Molnar, Judit: “Gendarmes, Policemen, Functionaries and the Jews-New Findings on the Behavior of Hungarian Authorities During the Holocaust.”

3) “…the First…Jewish Law (May 1938)…statutes restricting Jews’ civil, business, and professional rights…”
Levy, Richard S.: “Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, Volume 1.” (2005) p. 323

4) “On May 24, 1938, a month after Hitler’s annexation of Austria, the Hungarian parliament, in an effort to appease Hitler and prevent seizure of power by the Hungarian Nazis, enacted its first anti-Jewish law, prepared by the Horthy government, despite the bitter opposition of the Smallholders and Socialist parties and Bethlen’s conservative followers. The law limited employment of Jews in private business firms to 20 percent.”
Dawidowicz, Lucy S.: “The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945.” (1975) Online book; p. 462