ca. 1235 C.E.

“Sachsenspiegel” compiled by Eike von Repgow on behest of Lord Count Hoyer of Falkenstein [Saxony; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “[…] If a Jew buys or accepts chalices, books or priest’s clothing in pawn for which he has no warrantor, and if it is found in his possessions, he shall be tried as a thief. Whenever other items he buys openly in daylight and not behind closed doors that he can prove with two others, he retains the money he paid for it or lent upon his oath even if it has been stolen. Should his warrantor fail him, however, he loses his money. […]” [Researcher’s note: The Sachsenspiegel (Saxon Mirror) is the most important law book of compiled documents of the Holy Roman Empire in the German language.]
Dobozy, Maria: The Saxon Mirror – A “Sachsenspiegel” of the Fourteenth Century; Researched by Ziba Shadjaani 11/29/2016