Dec. 24, 1411

“Valladolid Laws” issued by King Juan [John] II of Castile and Leon [Kingdom of Castile and Leon, Present-day Spain, France]: “[…] Jews [are] to differentiate themselves from the Christian by their modest mode of dress; […] to let their hair and beards grow long; […] not to be called by Christian names or addressed by the courtesy title of Don. […] Jews [… are] not to be permitted to engage in tax-farming or to hold posts in the government or at the royal or princely court. 3. Jewish physicians are not allowed to treat Christian patients. Jew[ish] pharmacists and merchants are forbidden to sell drugs or food items to Christians. Jew[ish] blacksmiths, tailors, shoemakers … are not to serve Christian costumers. Furthermore, Jews are forbidden to act as brokers and money changers on behalf of Christians […] Jews are not allowed to have their estates cultivated by Christian tenant-farmers or farm laborers.  […] Jewish doctors are forbidden to treat and operate on non-Jewish patients. [… Jews] forbidden to travel abroad or to move from royal to baronial estates, […] Violation of any of these provisions […] is punishable by confiscation of property and slaves.”
Baer, Yelzhak: A History of the Jews in Christian Spain, Vol. 2; (Philadelphia; 1961); Researched by Ziba Shadjaani 11/26/2016 ADD PAGE #