ca. 1412

[Possible/Probable] “Charter” (‘Freibrief’) of Johann II, Bishop of Würzburg, 1412  [Bishopric of Würzburg; Present-day Germany] [Provisional]: “We, Johann, chosen/elected (‘Erwelter’) of the Stift [a territory in the Holy Roman Empire that enjoyed the status of a free imperial state] (Bishopric) of Würzburg by the grace of God, publicly announce with this letter/charter that […*] the aforementioned Jews and Jewess may [accept and] loan [money] on all kinds of pledges by day and by night, except on pledges that adhere to mass, namely chalices, church garments, and books – as one is to protect/honor the sacrament – and on wet** garments, in which people have been murdered […] however, the same Jews and Jewess, who want to move far away from us, shall first submit/pay all the taxes/levies (‘czins’) [up until] that same year. […].***” [Researcher’s note: *For the most part, Johann grants Jews numerous rights contained in this charter with some exceptions. He does this mostly to profit from the revenue the Jews would generate in his domain. Two years later, he requires that Jews submit their taxes every 6 months. **This appears to refer to bloody garments. ***This charter is valid for three years.]
Die Juden in Franken. Ein unpartheiischer Beitrag zur Sitten- und Rechtsgeschichte Frankens von Dr. Ludwig Heffner, praktischer Arzt zu Würzburg, Konservater des historischen Vereins daselbst. Mit 29 Urkunden-Beilagen (Nürnberg; 1855); (Jews in Frankonia.  An Non-Partisan Contribution Regarding the Moral and Legal History of Franconia by Dr. med. Ludwig Heffner, practical physician to Würzburg, Conservator of the Historical Association there (of the same city). With 29 [Official] Documents Attached.); (Nuremberg; 1855); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 3/8/2018