Dec. 1, 1768

“Royal Court Decree” issued by the Austrian Royal Court [Present-day Austria]: “[…] The commercial-consensus (government agency) is to watch over and to stop the creation of secret and prohibited businesses (‘Unterhandlungen’)*, which means the businesses of Jews who are [currently] present in Vienna […and] the commissioner who arrives [there] from time to time is to watch over this […] and upon discovery [of a violation] to proceed with an investigation and confiscation of the goods […]” [Researcher’s note: *’Unterhandlungen’ are usually business transactions that require a middleman or a negotiator.]

Politische Verfassung der Israeliten im Lande unter der Enns und insbesondere in der k. k. Haupt- und Residenzstadt Wien. J. L. E. Graf von Barth-Barthenheim. (Wien; 1821). (Political Constitution of the Israelis in the Country under/near Enns and especially in the R[oyal] I[mperial] Capital and Royal Seat of Vienna. J. L. E. Count von Barth-Barthenheim.); (Vienna; 1821); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 6/18/2018