Apr. 7, 1772

“Jewish Ordinance” of Landgrave Friedrich of Hesse [Present-day Germany; Landgraviate Hesse]: “By the grace of God, We, Friedrich, Landgrave of Hesse, Prince of Herzfeld, Earl of Catzenelnbogen, […] in addition to bestowing [upon you] Our grace, we are also letting you know herewith: Even though, the parliament-law of 1731 and […] 1739 and 1749, had attempted to curb/put an end — not only to the immense disadvantage and ruin the increased/excessive arrival of the Jewry brings to Our other subjects […] but also the excessive abuse in peddling and usury […]. However, in an attempt to supplement these laws, these healthy ordinance were deviated from – and not only by the ordinance of August 24, 1751, which permitted peddling in the countryside where it was to be tolerated the least […] but also by the ordinance of October 12, 1751, which gave [hope] to the second Jewish son and the third and even the daughter for [possibly] being granted protection-letters which burdened the land with many additional Jewish families and opened the path for more to arrive day by day. […] That is why we order the following herewith: §1) As per the Jewish Ordinance of 1749, according to which no foreign Jew may be accepted/received in Our land […] and of the local Jews only the first son of the first marriage can be granted protection and only if they fulfill the requirements as per §3 of the aforementioned ordinance […] §2) Article §19 [which says] that Jew are prohibited to peddle outside of the annual markets, and that instead they are permitted to offer/sell their items in their inns/taverns or private houses (‘Wirths- und Privat-Häuser) is to be valid once and for all. §3) Furthermore, in order so that Jews do not commit illegal usury with fruits, as they have done up to now, and bring about an increase in prices, it is Our order that in times when the harvest is not great, and fruits are worth more than they normally are, they may not be sold above price or [they will] be confiscated. […] §4) They (Jews) may not keep any fruit hidden – may these be low or high in price – at the threat of the same punishment. […]”
Center for Jewish History; legal document: Fredrick, Landgraviate of Hesse, April 7, 1772.; www.cjh.org; Accessed online; Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 9/9/2018