May 25, 1792

“Governmental Ordinance” issued by the Austrian Government [Present-day Austria]: “[Prohibits Jews and Christians from engaging in any sale of knick-knacks (‘Tändeln’*) and dictates … that violators] are fined 2 Reichstahler for the first time/violation […] 4 Reichstahler for the second violation, and 6 Reichstahler for the third violation along with a 24-hour arrest [… however, …] Jews, who wander through apartments and houses**, are to be fined/punished with a 24-hour arrest for the first violation, a 24-hour arrest and a 4 Reichstahler fine for the second violation, and the utter expulsion from Vienna without exception for the third violation […]” [Researcher’s note: *Even though, ‘Tändeln’ is usually used as a verb in modern German and refers to ‘dilly-dallying,’ in this text it is used as a noun and most likely refers to the sale of items that were considered to be somewhat useless. ** While the earlier part of the text refers to both local Christians and Jews, the second part of the ordinance refers to only Jews who were either thought to be foreigners or to be peddling items from home to home; nowhere in the text does it mention fines and/or punishment for other foreign [Christian or Muslim] peddlers.]
Politische Verfassung der Israeliten im Lande unter der Enns und insbesondere in der k. k. Haupt- und Residenzstadt Wien. J. L. E. Graf von Barth-Barthenheim. (Wien; 1821). (Political Constitution of the Israelis in the Country under/near Enns and especially in the R[oyal] I[mperial] Capital and Royal Seat of Vienna. J. L. E. Count von Barth-Barthenheim.); (Vienna; 1821); Researched and Translated by Ziba Shadjaani 6/26/2018